How can Christians learn from history how best to serve the poor?
The competing paradigms within evangelical thought on poverty alleviation can best be distinguished by the voluntary principle versus the principle of redistribution.
Evangelicals have historically embraced the voluntary principle, which relies on promoting the biblical doctrine of work, the interworking of free-market competition, and fostering wealth-creation. Thomas Chalmers and the Earl of Shaftsbury, who is quoted in the image to the right, were two prominent Christians who utilized this principle in the nineteenth century.
Today I want to share the biblical basis for the voluntary principle, and explore how it plays out in a market-setting.
The Voluntary Principle
The voluntary principle is a short hand way of describing a response to poverty based upon individuals and voluntary societies providing for the needs of the poor rather than the state. This principle lies at the heart of the evangelical response to poverty.
This principle is founded in several biblical passages, including the following:
- I Chronicles 29:6-22, Luke 14:33, and II Corinthians 9:7 emphasize the importance of giving, and provide motivation for voluntarily providing for others.
- Exodus 35:30-35 indicates the importance of enterprise and creativity.
- II Thessalonians 3:10 affirms the importance of work.
- Exodus 20:15 and Proverbs 19:14 support the idea of property rights.
- Acts 16:14 provides an example of trade.
Putting these and other biblical passages together, a biblical approach to fighting poverty emerges. It is a picture of utilizing Christians in forming local, voluntary associations that promote enterprise, work, and free-market economic principles.
Since these bodies are local, Christians who participate in them are more likely to know those in need. They are also more able to assess what those needs really are, in contrast to the state’s remote, more bureaucratic, and less-targeted provision.
Additionally, these local associations encourage enterprise and personal responsibility to help people find ways out of poverty. The voluntary principle in action is usually full of programs from savings clubs and schools to emigration to new lives, all designed to replace welfare with enterprise.
The Voluntary Principle and the Market
The role of the market in dealing with poverty is frequently misunderstood.
For Christians, the market is an essential part of God’s provision for the world and a means to deal with poverty. This is because at the heart of the market is a paradox. Individuals pursuing their own self-interest together work for the common good. Human beings bargain and trade with each other naturally.
Sin complicates this. Not only might the market not work as intended, but also the individuals within it may be corrupted and act illegally, immorally, or in an exploitative manner. The market needs individuals who will bring values to the marketplace.
Thomas Chalmers was a professor of theology, prominent leader in the Church of Scotland, and a political economist who utilized the voluntary principle. He believed that human beings, while tainted with sin, also had implanted within them a moral compass. For the Christian, this is a consequence of a heart and a life that has turned to Christ. From this stems a basic assumption of the voluntary principle: that compassion stems from the heart, not the government.
Further, in economics, the market has proven to be the most effective tool for development. Utilizing self-interest to help the common good is an effective method for bettering society. The market uses incentives to promote hard work, catering to the cultural mandate. It marries responsibility with access to mobility, helping the poor help themselves.
When the creativity, innovation, and dynamism of human beings acting within the market are combined with the voluntary principle, the result is a radical approach that challenges poverty.
Editor’s Note: This post was adapted from IFWE’s forthcoming book, For the Least of These: A Biblical Answer to Poverty, due to be released in early 2014.
What role do you see the market and the voluntary principle playing in alleviating poverty? Leave your comments here.
- Part 1: For the Least of These: A Biblical Answer to Poverty
- Part 2: Who Are The Rich & The Poor?
- Part 3: What Does It Mean to Help the Poor?
- Part 4: How Should the Church Help the Poor?
- Part 5: Four Principles of Poverty Alleviation
- Part 6: What Does the Old Testament Says About Poverty and Riches?
- Part 7: Ancient Rome, Mosaic Law, and Poverty Relief
- Part 8: The Church’s Role in Poverty Alleviation
- Part 9: The Causes of Poverty in the New Testament
- Part 10: Sin: The Root Cause of Poverty
- Part 11: What Can the New Testament Teach Us About Fighting Poverty?
- Part 12: What the Five Myths of Jubilee Mean for Poverty
- Part 13: Acts 2-5 and Poverty
- Part 14: Christian History’s Radical Approach to Poverty
- Part 15: Two Proven Ideas to Help the Poor
- Part 16: Critiques of Market-Based Poverty Alleviation
- Part 17: Why Income Inequality Has Little to Do with Poverty
- Part 18: When Income Inequality Is – and Isn’t – a Problem
- Part 19: Freedom – A Poverty Program That Worked?
- Part 20: One Woman’s Journey from Welfare to Work
- Part 21: Charity – An Insufficient Conclusion?
- Part 22: How People Who Live on Less than Two Dollars a Day Taught Me to Redefine Poverty
- Part 23: Why A Ukrainian Church Turned Down American Aid
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