Blog
Part 2 in a series on The History of Work

In light of the Old Testament background, it is not surprising to see the appreciation of work in the first-century Christian church that is very similar to the Jewish understanding. Though He called his disciples out of their vocations, Jesus gave no general call for all Christians to give up everyday work. Much of his teaching drew on themes from the world of everyday work, with no self-consciousness or apologies.


Paul also emphasized a positive view of work when he commanded all Christians to continue in their work and to work well (Colossians 3:23-24; 1 Thessalonians 4:11-12). Paul himself continued in his trade as a tentmaker during his church planting ministry (Acts 18:3).

Continuing in their everyday occupations was evidently the general Christian pattern for the first century after the Apostles. Christians gave glory to God in and through their occupations. They did the same jobs as unbelievers, but they did those jobs in a distinctly Christian way. In the Letter to Diognetus from the second century A.D. we read this description of the everyday lives of Christians:

For Christians cannot be distinguished from the rest of the human race by country or language or customs. They do not live in cities of their own; they do not use a peculiar form of speech; they do not follow an eccentric manner of life. This doctrine of theirs has not been discovered by the ingenuity of deep thought of inquisitive men, nor do they put forward a merely human teaching, as some people do. Yet, although they live in Greek and barbarian cities alike, as each man’s lot has been cast, and follow the customs of the country in clothing and food and other matters of daily living, at the same time they give proof of the remarkable and admittedly extraordinary constitution of their own commonwealth. They live in their own countries, but only as aliens. They have a share in everything as citizens, and endure everything as foreigners. Every foreign land is their fatherland, and yet for them every fatherland is a foreign country. They marry, like everyone else, and they beget children, but they do not cast out their offspring. They share their board with each other, but not their marriage bed. It is true that they are “in the flesh,” but they do not live “according to the flesh.” They busy themselves on earth, but their citizenship is in heaven. They obey the established laws, but in their own lives they go far beyond what the laws require. . . . What the soul is to the body that the Christians are to the world.

By the ordinariness and yet the distinctiveness of how they lived, the early believers invited their pagan neighbors, by word and witness, to consider the truth of the faith they proclaimed.

Although there is no specific mention of occupations in the Letter, it is clear that the early Christians had a sense of vocational calling. The picture we see through the eyes of this second-century writer is of Christians working out their holiness in the ordinary callings of their lives. They were truly salt and light in their culture. As a result, they radically changed their world in the first few centuries after the death and resurrection of Christ.

Question: How are you being salt and light in your job? Leave a comment here.

Hugh Whelchel

About Hugh Whelchel

Hugh Whelchel is Executive Director of the Institute for Faith, Work & Economics and author of "How Then Should We Work?: Rediscovering the Biblical Doctrine of Work." Hugh has a Master of Arts in Religion and brings over 30 years of diverse business experience to his leadership at IFWE. Read More...

Please read our comment policy.